Research also strictly conforms to legal requirements regarding the maintenance and use of cultural resources 4 ps do marketing. While analyses like those reported herein can occur making use of records with specific geospatial data, the data itself and permission to use it must be obtained from the agencies maintaining the information.
DINAA, accordingly, research not publish or store precise site coordinates online, and the project redacts other sensitive attributes, particularly property ownership, southeastern, from state site file repositories, in consultation with agency and other interested parties, including tribal nations.
Directions to offices to contact research obtain such information for each site are provided with analytical output, but DINAA itself does not maintain or release such data. For public display purposes DINAA site data is aggregated within a archaeological web map in Open Context, where a map-tiling algorithm allocates each site record to a 0.
The Open Context platform provides publicly accessible online map interfaces for visualization and queries at a low level of spatial resolution that still has great utility when examining distributions encompassing large areas or time periods. DINAA digital data are archived with the California Digital Library, and mirrored in repositories in other countries to ensure long term survival [ 7172 ].
Indexing, or linking to and rendering interoperable data from many sources and across disciplines is a major function of DINAA, increasing its utility for resource management, research, and public education Fig 2. DINAA can serve as a key node in connecting North American archaeological data, allowing, for the first time, its linkage across multiple time periods and geographic regions, and using an array of environmental data sets to explore fundamental issues such as changes in human land use over time; the nature of the archaeological record collected over the past century, including the identification of research strengths and gaps; and, as we show here, how future changes in climate will affect site preservation and heritage management.
DINAA directs users to these outlets, but access and content control remains on their systems black arrows indicate existing linkages, white arrows indicate linkages under development. The focus for this study is the southeastern United States, where a vast shoreline characterized by minimal vertical relief exists, and where minor fluctuations in sea level have been shown to have significant effects on shoreline movement and human settlement in the past e.
The analysis spans the area from Maryland to the Texas-Louisiana border, and makes use of all recorded sites within these states as of Januaryincluding historic properties determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places NRHP [ ]. These data were used to develop a GIS-based inventory and assessment of threats to known archaeological and cultural resources located along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the eastern United States.
Only archaeological site data from Mississippi is not included, due to delays in data transfer. Fortunately Mississippi occupies simply psychology maslow a small area along the Gulf coast, southeastern data were available from it for the other analyses conducted.
All recorded sites within a buffer of km from the present coastline are shown. Three areas of concern raised by projected sea archaeological rise are southeastern No calendar dates are presented beyond general estimates research when sea levels will reach specific elevations.
Such determinations are projections at present, with wide ranges depending on circumstances [ 13archaeological research, 4 ]. Archaeological sites and NRHP Eligible properties research the study area are listed by elevation in Tables 1 and 2data that serves as a proxy for the numbers that will be lost given sea level rise of varying values.
Data are provided in summary form by state and 1-meter increments from 0 to 5 meters, and greater increments beyond that, encompassing all sites escola de mecanica auto relevo NRHP properties within km of the current coastline.
The km buffer was research to assess the research of recorded properties at www teubilhete com br elevations further inland, where populations research be forced to relocate. More specific analyses can be calculated as needed, for example, around inland areas where population relocation may occur, or along portions of the coast where construction of seawalls might be considered.
It is clear that small massa de pizza com fermento biologico in sea level will have great consequences on the coastal research record. A total of 32, recorded archaeological sites along the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coastal margin qual a funcao do menisco within 5 m of modern sea level, including research, recorded at or below sea level and for which no elevation data were available in the state site files or that could be research given the locational data present Table 1.
Assuming current projections hold, and the sea level rises approximately one meter by the end of the century [ 1archaeological ], southeastern archaeological research, a total of 19, currently recorded archaeological sites will be submerged. Since survey coverage is incomplete, southeastern numbers of actual sites impacted will be much higher.
Large numbers of recorded sites are within 1m vertical elevation of modern sea level, and the numbers drop off markedly above 3 m across the region. People in the Southeast appear to have lived in close proximity to the coast in recent millennia, at least in terms of elevation [ 97 — 99 ].
Similar losses are indicated when NRHP eligible property data are examined, with 1, at or below 1 m in elevation, and 2, archaeological 5 m of modern sea level Table 2. While some archaeological sites research included in the NRHP data, many historic buildings and landscapes are also present.
In addition, traditional cultural properties TCPs and resource areas important to Native American groups research often identified through characteristics not recognized by the Research, and may not be included in counts of cultural resources in coastal areas.
Likewise, not all coastal and offshore areas have been thoroughly surveyed for submerged or archaeological submerged sites, which will likely be impacted by changes in biotic activity, commercial fishing, boat traffic, and overall access given changes in sea level [ 36 — 40 ]. Again, a substantial drop off in NRHP property numbers is evident immediately away from the coast, processo de escrituracao contabil especially above 3 m in elevation, another indicator of the importance archaeological immediate coastal margins in human history [ 22— ].
The data are sobering: Tens of thousands of historic and prehistoric archaeological sites, and thousands of properties currently designated eligible for inclusion on the NRHP, which include archaeological sites, standing structures, and other cultural property types, will be submerged and hence lost or damaged, southeastern archaeological research, as well as underwater resources that will be effected by changes in ocean acidification, southeastern, currents, and shipping patterns [ 2223southeastern archaeological research, — ].
The impact of changing climate on terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites, southeastern archaeological research, historic buildings, and cultural landscapes will be massive. Furthermore, not only are these coastal southeastern near-coastal research threatened by inundation and erosion, but they will also be threatened by efforts to prevent or delay the loss of coastal land through massive infrastructure projects like sea walls, assuming seas rise slowly enough to permit their construction, or they lie in areas not afforded protection by sea walls.
While such activities may research or even halt the inland advance of coastal waters in some areas [ 46 ], they would also likely research significant damage and destruction to existing heritage resources. Matematica 3 ano do ensino medio survey coverage oriented toward finding archaeological sites and archaeological properties is incomplete in many coastal areas, southeastern archaeological research, as are efforts to evaluate these sites in terms of NRHP eligibility, these estimates should download livro 1984 viewed as conservative.
Below we assess other impacts of sea level rise likely to impact cultural resources, and discuss the implications of these data in planning for the future. Sea level rise will displace large numbers of people and inundate large areas on the eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States, even should major construction projects occur to protect critical population and economic centers Fig 4. Data on the numbers of people and amount of area involved are provided in Tables 3 and 4encompassing the nine states in the southeastern sample.
No areas or population centers are excluded, even those where massive efforts are likely to made to protect them, to provide an accurate determination of the extent of the environmental impact.
Population data are derived from estimates produced as part of the ongoing LandScan initiative undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory . The LandScan data set, which is available as a downloadable raster data set, has a horizontal resolution of 1 km2 per pixel.
It should be noted that studies excluding tidelands produce different and typically much lower numbers for land area loss . Over 3 million people in the Southeast currently live in areas at or below 1 mAMSL, and hence are likely to be displaced in the next century given current projections for sea level rise Table 3.
It should be noted that the population data includes significant numbers of people in cells with an average elevation below 1 mAMSL, reflecting the nature of the sample cells, and the fact that some people do live in areas below modern sea level, in areas protected by levees such as in the lower Mississippi Delta. Even larger numbers of people live in immediately higher elevations, in the intervals from 1—2 m and 2—3 m, a pattern that differs somewhat from the archaeological and historic record, where the largest numbers of sites were found in the interval at or below 1 m in elevation.
Modern populations whose occupations are not considered historic or archaeological appear to have been, on the average, occupying higher ground at greater distance from the coast. This most likely reflects infrastructure related to transportation and acquisition of potable water, although above 3 m the numbers of people, like the numbers of recorded historic and archaeological sites, also drop substantially, again reflecting a strong preference for proximity to the coast.
This loss of ancient heritage will strikingly compound the injuries of climate change to indigenous peoples forced to vacate ancestral homes in coastal regions, something already happening to Native populations in the southeastern United States [ ].
Appreciable terrain will also be submerged in the southeastern United States as sea levels rise, with losses in some states greater than others, with the greatest loss in Florida, which also has the longest coastal margin Table 4. These values, of course, only tell part of the story, since the numbers of people living within these areas will be making their own decisions about how to react, individually and collectively. However slowly or rapidly sea level rise occurs, in extreme weather events storm surges and flooding will affect infrastructure, and may prompt population movement even before an area is completely submerged, with substantial impacts on cultural resources [ 12 — 17— ].
As coastal terrain is flooded, increased development is likely in the regions behind the coastline, so the area of effect will extend away from the coast. What specific areas and elevations will undergo development, that is, will be occupied by displaced people and their infrastructure, will be shaped, in part, by the rate and extent of sea level rise.
Coastal zones, including large areas in the United States, many cities, and entire island nations are in immediate danger of inundation in the next century [— ]. The effects of shoreline erosion and local increases in sea level relative to land are particularly pronounced in places like coastal Louisiana . Sea level rise and changes in shoreline environments will not by uniformly distributed, due to variability in shoreface, beach, and substrate composition, sediment sources and sinks, freshwater sources, tidal action, and biotic communities [ — ].
Coastal landforms such as sea-islands, long a favored area for human occupation in the lower Southeast, may be especially vulnerable to both sea level rise and increased storm frequency and intensity lowering their overall height [ ]. Sea level rise will also dramatically impact areas well inland, not only because that is where people will be forced to relocate, or obtain materials for dykes and similar barriers [ 46 ], but because terrestrial and marine environments, and hence human food and fresh water sources, will themselves be impacted by changes in tidal range and salinity [ — ].
The dead as well as the living will also be impacted, as sea level rise covers burial areas, a fact that appears to have shaped human worldviews in the ancient American Southeast and continues to be a subject of concern in the present [ 436769 ]. While historic era cemeteries are not typically recorded as archaeological sites in many states unless subject to excavation, 6, are documented in DINAA from the 15 state regional sample, albeit very unevenly distributed due to reporting differences [ 73 ].
This is apparently a tiny subset of the estimated ca. Sea level rise will thus impact many burial areas ancient and modern, adding another consideration in mitigation planning [ 43456769 ]. At present, the effects of sea level rise on past cultural resources can be directly observed in the sparsity of the coastal archaeological record for the late Pleistocene and early Holocene period, during which time humans living in the Americas occupied vast areas of the continental shelf that were exposed by sea levels as much as m lower than today [ 37 — 396162 ].
Following a period of rapidly rising sea levels in the late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, the coastlines of the eastern United States reached near modern locations about years ago, but have still experienced fluctuations of 1 to 2 m vertically and up to several kilometers horizontally in recent millennia, with significant impacts on coastal populations [ 97 — 99— ].
These regions are now directly threatened by rising waters, and the potential for the loss of thousands of years of accumulated information is significant. Given the large numbers of cultural resources threatened by sea level rise, planning possible protection and mitigation strategies should proceed with an increased sense of urgency.
Many researchers and government agencies within the United States and beyond, in fact, have initiated or been developing both broad based and focused, site-specific studies on the effect of sea level rise [ 21 — 2325 — 35].
One way to proceed is to use the entire known sample of cultural resources to document the numbers of properties that will be lost, by specific time period and within specific areas. Developing such a comprehensive database, of course, will be necessary, and include site records maintained by disparate state, federal, tribal, and local government agencies.
This information can help to develop a triage system for cultural resources in coastal and near-coastal regions [ ]. At the same time, efforts should be directed toward identifying and evaluating areas and site types currently under- or unexamined. The goal of such efforts should be to assist in the development of programs directed to the excavation, removal or relocation, and architectural documentation of critical cultural resources and resource areas.
In the Southeast such efforts are appearing at the state level, including studies of significant sites or areas in Georgia [ 25] and Florida [ 4166 — 70], and collectively over large areas by federal agencies like the National Park Service [ 212832 ]. DINAA offers a means to augment these studies by updating inventories with robust data linked to many other data sets and analytical platforms, facilitating effective resource management planning.
Data on the number of components by major temporal period located at archaeological sites within km of the coast, by elevation above modern sea level, are given for the state of South Carolina in Table 5. The numbers of sites in each elevation interval correspond to the state totals, since they are derived from the same site file data set in DINAA Table 1but the numbers of components are invariably higher, in some cases much higher, because some sites were repeatedly visited and are multicomponent.
In some cases individual occupations can be quite specifically identified to temporal period while others can be only generally identified to age, perhaps no more specifically than to a categorization as precontact or historic.
It should be noted that comparable tables can be generated for each state in the region; South Carolina was chosen as an example for illustrative purposes, and to show the potential of DINAA.
Land use patterns are highlighted when examining individual state data by time period, and help to determine if survey coverage or research biases have affected the estimated number of existing sites in coastal areas. Few early prehistoric Paleoindian through Middle Archaic period components, for example, are found in coastal i.
With greatly lowered sea levels during these earlier periods, the coast would have been much farther away, perhaps making these areas less attractive for settlement. Likewise, given the intense occupation in coastal areas after sea levels largely stabilized in the region during the later Mid-Holocene [ — ], it is not surprising that large numbers of components are found in close proximity to modern sea level.
Even in this area, appreciable variability in location exists, due to the effects of ca. Interestingly, within the South Carolina sample the larger regional pattern holds, in that that large number of components are found within 1 m of modern sea level, and far fewer above 3 m in elevation, reinforcing the conclusion that people over the last several thousand years lived in close proximity to the coast, albeit shifting location as needed to accommodate the fluctuations in sea level of plus or minus 2 m or so that have occurred.
Resource managers will need to evaluate sites in large numbers to determine which ones to preserve, protect, or mitigate. This is no different than what modern cultural resources management deals with on a regular basis, only here we call for consideration of the entirety of the coastal record as one data set, rather than on an individual case-by-case basis. Effective systems of management, including triage and mitigation, can only be developed when we have an accurate understanding of the cultural resources in an area, and where critical gaps in that knowledge exist.
Existing databases need to be completed or developed and subsequently linked to systems like DINAA, while strict protections for sensitive location and other information are maintained.
Many cultural resource databases reflect incomplete coverage of a geographic area or contain only particular kinds of data.
Ancient Chihuahuas Once Roamed, and Eaten, in Southeastern U.S.?
A recent exemplary study of the archaeological of sea level research on National Park Service coastal parks, for example, excluded most known archaeological resources because they were archaeological part of the Facilities Management Software System database listing assets requiring routine maintenance within each NSP unit [ research ]. Research and linking dispersed databases, and rendering them interoperable for research and management purposes, research allow management decisions to proceed with much larger and more representative samples.
Archaeologists and land managers need to be aware archaeological cultural resources face specific threats, and that sea level rise will impact resources differently in different areas, southeastern archaeological research, depending on geomorphological factors like shoreline shape art 244 b do eca slope, the underlying matrix, the nature research the archeological deposits, and southeastern range of other variable associated with the cultural properties [ 22 — 2628 — 30, ].
For example, some shell middens dating to the Mid-Holocene have already witnessed episodes of submergence and exposure, but remain at partially intact archaeological coastal marshlands research the Southeast e. The circumstances favoring preservation or loss of coastal sites will need to be carefully evaluated on an individual or class basis [ 22]. Resources directed to cultural resources will undoubtedly change as environmental conditions change, and historic preservation specialists will continue to have a major role in preserving our cultural heritage [ 26—, ], southeastern archaeological.
Guidance for resource managers on how to deal with the impacts of climate change is clearly needed, and action directed to these ends is underway in federal agencies like the US National Park Service [ archaeological o que e digito verificador do registro do aluno, 2829, ] as well as international governing bodies like the United Nations .
Effort should be directed to making sure our inventories of cultural resources are accurate, adequate, as complete as possible, and linked together with interoperable data elements, so the information can be utilized to prioritize preservation projects and research problems by site type and risk level, allowing the most pressing needs in resource preservation to be addressed effectively. More sites should be evaluated for placement on the NRHP; at present, in some circumstances only formal listing offers any hope of preservation or mitigation.
Resources should be directed to evaluating sites in large numbers, as has happened with southeastern coastal shell ring and midden sites [, ]. The economic costs of mitigating cultural resource loss through excavation, relocation, or architectural documentation should be considered thoroughly and incurred conscientiously, as it is well known that public funding for historic preservation efforts is often difficult to acquire, limited in quantity, and requires a high level of justification.
Ultimately, what will be needed is a commitment, like that last seen in the Great Depression, to document that which will be lost if the effects of sea level rise are not mitigated.
This time, instead of rescuing information from sites in reservoir floodpools as was done by the Tennessee Valley Authority [ ], or deliberate economic recovery or tourist-industry focused make-work projects like those in the Macon, Georgia area [ ], much of the work will need to occur in coastal areas or where the resettlement of displaced populations will occur.
The Cape Hatteras lighthouse relocation was expensive and technically challenging, but offers an excellent example of what can be done when resources are made available [ 51 ].
Consideration may have to be given to relocating or constructing protective barriers for other such monuments, like the Castillo de San Marcos and Ft. Augustine, for example, or the Lincoln and Jefferson Memorials [ 2128 ]. Sites in heavily developed, low lying areas may in fact be at less risk, because there will be added effort taken to protect those areas.
An NRHP eligible site or structure in central New Orleans is probably more likely to be protected by new sea walls or levees than a shell ring on a low, relatively undeveloped southeastern coastline. This analysis assumes sea level rise will destroy cultural resources.
Of course, depending on the rate and rapidity of rise, it may only submerge these resources, with the extent of damage or loss uncertain. Some studies have shown that sea level fluctuations may not totally destroy cultural resources; much depends on the rapidity and frequency with which submergence or exposure may occur e. More such studies are critically needed, since preservation in place may be our only option for most sites, unfortunately by default.
What will be preserved is important to determine, because it will mean resources can be directed to other, more vulnerable site types. Some of these sites may be accessible using underwater archaeological methods in the future, meaning mitigation should be directed to site types unlikely to survive sea level rise or storm surges.
Finally, we need to be thinking not just about sites and architecture, but also about the long term curation of physical collections and records.
Storing the archival records and collections within one or even several research vertical southeastern above modern sea level will need to be rethought, since such actions can no longer tecnicas de biologia molecular considered a viable means of ensuring effective curation in perpetuity. Although the scientific community recognizes the profound impact of humans on the natural environment in archaeological centuries, few institutions fund the investigation of long-term human-environmental interactions through database development like DINAA.
The initial data collection and integration phase of DINAA has been undertaken largely voluntarily by southeastern team research at several institutions, southeastern archaeological research, together with unimed juiz de fora guia medico archaeological from the Archaeology Research of the Archaeological Science Foundation.
This has allowed us to develop a proof-of-concept framework integrating archaeological data from 15 states [ 72southeastern archaeological research, 73 ], for linkage to environmental and collections data sets. DINAA demonstrates how a truly continental southeastern database useful for research, resource management, and public education can be developed, and how it can be maintained and updated on a regular schedule by a sustainable community of scholars and stakeholders.
Linking archaeological site files and other data sets at broad scales catalyzes research across disciplines, promoting more holistic understanding of both human adaptation and environmental impacts. As multidisciplinary databases addressing sea level and other forms of global change are developed, the role of cultural resources are increasingly coming to be regarded as a critical factor when planning mitigation strategies [ 1927, ]. DINAA, through its adoption of an open data policy within limitations regarding sensitive informationpromotes information sharing and integration, not only of archaeological but paleoenvironmental, biogeographical, physiographic, and other data characterizing our environment.
Within archaeology such approaches to data management are increasingly viewed as not only good science, but an ethical obligation [ ]. DINAA has open-ended applications allowing researchers, land managers, and interested members of the public to examine the nature and scale of human responses to the dramatic fluctuations in temperature, biota, and sea level that have occurred over the ca. Hopefully there will be time to implement these suggestions. However, changes in sea level may be far greater and occur far faster than currently predicted.
Delay in thinking about these matters and in seeking solutions accomplishes nothing. Developing data infrastructure like DINAA is crucial to multidisciplinary analyses linking differing kinds and sources of data together and rendering them interoperable.
By facilitating the mapping of archaeological sites over time and at varying geographic scales, showing where people were on the landscape and how they reacted to changes in climate and biota, tools like DINAA are useful to addressing research and management concerns. These include helping people gain a much greater appreciation for American history and culture, and protecting the vulnerable heritage of indigenous communities.
Companies Doing Historical Archaeology
Linked data can be used to explore the impact of sea level rise on cultural and historical resources. The effects of sea level rise on cultural resources is intimately linked to the humanitarian and economic issues that need to be faced in all crises [ 44].
Cultural resources, promoting an awareness of and appreciation for our heritage, are essential avaliacao institucional escolar questionario our well-being, and a continuing source southeastern [ 26, ]. Population relocation and new infrastructure required to cope research sea level rise, we have seen, will have severe negative impacts on coastal and near-coastal cultural resources.
Given the investment archaeological has made in these areas, efforts should be directed to preventing and, if this is not possible, managing potential losses. Cyberinfrastructure development is a critical part of 21 st century archaeology, and projects archaeological DINAA will make archaeological data increasingly useful and relevant to research, management, and public educational efforts. Data-driven archaeology can provide unparalleled insights into long-term human-environmental interactions, enabling archaeology to more escola augusto comte participate in the efforts directed to understanding the impacts of research change.
Such knowledge is critical to making well southeastern forecasts and policy decisions about the consequences of rapid climate change, extreme weather events, and burgeoning populations, factors that will shape our civilization archaeological in the coming decades. While legal and ethical restrictions require that we safe-guard the precise location data behind this study which is available from the agencies maintaining it [ ]Research makes research openly available with a southeastern level of spatial resolution to enable at least partial replication of research analyses, and most critically, to enable researchers in many fields of study to try other applications, using a framework built archaeological information from research past to project trends forward in time.
Research trade in seashell jewelry was big business. A pot unearthed at Casas Grandes is decorated with the heads of Chihuahuas proving that the dog had a long history in the area.
Yet around AD the city came to a violent end when it was apparently attacked, southeastern archaeological research, burned to the ground, and its inhabitants massacred. Two centers of trade housed in the tallest structures of their time and both met the same tragic end. The more things change, the more they stay the same. Around the same time that Casas Grandes came to a violent end, the dog effigy pots representing Chihuahuas first showed up in Georgia.
Could survivors from Casas Grandes have escaped their enemies by fleeing into the woodlands of the southeastern U. Interestingly, the Kasihta-Creek Indian tribe lived in the area of Georgia where these dog pots were found. Their migration legend strongly suggests they originated in west Mexico before undertaking a long migration and eventually settling in Georgia. Unfortunately, the legend also states that when they arrived in Georgia they massacred an entire village so that their tribal members could each have a house.
The dog effigy pots are not the only evidence of Chihuahuas in the southeastern United States. Apparently this food was reserved for the elites of the towns. Yet a similar custom of elites eating fattened dogs was common in Mexico. The breed usually eaten was the Techichi which was a mute dog that the modern Chihuahua is thought to be derived from.
The dog pots in Colima in west Mexico show fattened Techichis which provide visual evidence for this practice. The dog pots in the southeastern U. Thus it is likely the early Spanish eyewitness accounts were accurate descriptions of Native American traditions in the region. In both Colima and Casas Grandes there is evidence of extensive Mayan influence. In both areas archaeologists have unearthed typical Mayan ball courts. The red macaws bred at Casas Grandes are a bird from the Mayan areas of southern Mexico.
Cacao trees have been found in Colima which is far outside their natural habitat in the Mayan areas of southern Mexico. The expedition led by David Mearns, uncovered the wreck of the Portuguese Esmeralda, which sank off the coast of Oman in A British shipwreck hunter has discovered a year-old vessel once captained by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama's family. It was thought to be lost to the waves until an expedition, led by expert David Mearns, uncovered the wreck and its 2, treasures.
A team of excavation, historical and scientific experts with help from the Oman's ministry of culture spent three years searching for the ship. Also see the video on facebook: The discovery of the San Jose shipwreck has all the elements of a great drama: The Colombian government announced in early December that they had found the San Josean 18th-century Spanish galleon that may be the most valuable shipwreck ever discovered. Now, Colombia has offered to allow the company to verify whether the San Jose is where the company said it was 33 years ago.
But Sea Search Armada SSA officials think the offer is a scheme, meant to provide Colombian officials an excuse to dismiss their longstanding claim to share the immense wealth of the San Jose, which sank just off the Colombian coast three centuries ago. See more pics at: An ancient Greek city has been discovered sunken beneath the Aegean Sea. The settlement dates back around 4, years 2, BC and was the size of around 10 football fields, covering an area of 12 acres.
They found at least three huge horseshoe-shaped foundations attached to the wall line — which they say was possibly part of towers used to defend the settlement. Significance and Preliminary Investigations Within the sheltered waters of Ronneby archipelago near the island of Stora Ekön, southeastern Sweden, lies the remains of a rather disjointed but well-preserved wooden wreck. The wreck, previously known as the Stora Ekö or Ekö wreck, was already discovered by local sport divers in the s.
However, it was only inwhen strange artefacts had been uncovered on the site, that archaeologists were made aware of its location Einarsson A wooden sample was promptly taken from one of the timbers, revealing that the ship had been constructed of oak wood felled in the winter of AD Read more in CombatArchaeology. The material includes a number of cannons that are described as being in excellent condition. Two of the cannons have been lifted, one of which bears a dedication to and depiction of St Matrona who was particularly venerated by the people of Catalonia and Barcelona.
The recovery operation is expected to last a number of weeks.