A filosofia de nietzsche

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Max Stirner's attacks on systematic philosophy, his denial of absolutes, and his rejection of abstract concepts of any kind often places him among questionario de pesquisa de marketing first philosophical nihilists.

For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, filosofia, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed. Even beyond the oppression of the state, though, are the constraints imposed by others because their very existence is an obstacle compromising individual freedom. Thus Stirner argues that existence is an endless "war of each against all" The Ego and its Own modelo projeto fapesp, trans.

Among philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche is most often associated with nihilism. For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent.

For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: The caustic nietzsche of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and nietzsche its withering scrutiny " the highest values filosofia themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" Will to Nietzsche. Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct nietzsche as symptoms of a defective Western mythos.

This nietzsche of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity:. What I relate is the history of the next two centuries.

I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: For some time now our whole European culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade: Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers.

Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.

InMartin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" The Question of Being. Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror.

Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

While nihilism is often discussed in terms of extreme skepticism and relativism, for most of the 20th century it has been associated with the belief that life is meaningless. Existential nihilism begins with the notion that the world is without meaning or purpose. Given this circumstance, existence itself--all action, suffering, and feeling--is ultimately senseless and empty.

In The Dark Side: Filosofia on the Futility of LifeAlan Pratt demonstrates that existential nihilism, in one form or another, has been a part of the Western intellectual tradition from the beginning.

The Skeptic Empedocles' observation that "the life of mortals is so mean a thing as to be virtually un-life," for instance, embodies the same kind of extreme nietzsche associated with existential nihilism. In antiquity, such profound pessimism may have reached nietzsche letra raridade anderson freire download with Hegesias of Cyrene.

Because miseries vastly outnumber pleasures, filosofia, happiness is impossible, the philosopher argues, and subsequently advocates suicide. Centuries later during the Renaissance, William Shakespeare eloquently summarized the existential nihilist's perspective when, in this famous passage near the end of Macbethhe has Nietzsche pour out his disgust for life:.

Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more; it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. In the twentieth century, it's the atheistic existentialist movement, popularized in France in the s and 50s, that is responsible for the currency of existential nihilism in the popular consciousness.

Jean-Paul Sartre's defining preposition for the movement, "existence precedes essence," rules out any ground or foundation for establishing an essential self or a human nature. When we abandon illusions, life is revealed as nothing; and for the existentialists, nothingness is the source of not only absolute freedom but also existential horror and emotional anguish.

Nothingness reveals each individual as an isolated being "thrown" into an alien and unresponsive universe, barred forever from knowing why yet required to invent meaning. It's a situation that's nothing short of absurd. Writing from the enlightened perspective of the absurd, Albert Camus observed that Sisyphus' plight, condemned to eternal, useless struggle, was a superb metaphor for human existence The Myth of Sisyphus The common thread in the literature of the existentialists is coping with the emotional anguish arising from our confrontation with nothingness, and they expended great energy responding to the question of whether surviving it was possible.

Their answer was a qualified "Yes," advocating a formula of passionate commitment and impassive stoicism. In retrospect, it was an anecdote tinged with desperation because in an absurd world there are absolutely no guidelines, and any course of action is problematic. Passionate commitment, be it to conquest, creation, or whatever, is itself meaningless.

Camus, like the other existentialists, was convinced that nihilism was the most vexing problem of the twentieth century. Although he argues passionately that individuals could endure its corrosive effects, nietzsche most famous works betray the extraordinary difficulty he faced building a convincing case.

In The Strangerfor example, Meursault arte em cabaca rejected the existential suppositions on which the uninitiated and weak rely. Filosofia moments before his execution for a gratuitous filosofia, he discovers that life alone is reason enough for living, a raison nietzschehowever, that in context seems scarcely convincing.

In Caligulathe mad emperor tries to escape the human predicament by dehumanizing himself with acts of senseless violence, fails, and surreptitiously arranges his own assassination. The Plague shows the futility of doing one's best in an absurd world. And in his last novel, the short and sardonic, The FallCamus posits that everyone has bloody hands because we are all responsible for making a sorry state worse by our inane action and inaction alike.

In these works and other works by the existentialists, one is often left with the impression that living authentically with the meaninglessness of life is impossible. Camus was fully aware of the pitfalls of defining existence without meaning, and in his philosophical essay The Rebel he faces the problem of nihilism head-on.

In it, he describes at length how metaphysical collapse often ends in total negation and the victory of nihilism, characterized by profound hatred, pathological destruction, and incalculable violence and death.

By the late 20th century, "nihilism" had assumed two different castes.

In one form, "nihilist" is used to characterize the postmodern person, a dehumanized conformist, alienated, indifferent, and baffled, directing psychological energy into filosofia narcissism or into a deep ressentiment that often explodes in violence. Nietzsche perspective is derived from the existentialists' reflections on nihilism stripped of any hopeful expectations, leaving only the experience of sickness, decay, and disintegration.

In his study filosofia meaninglessness, Donald Crosby writes that the source of modern nihilism paradoxically stems from a commitment to honest intellectual openness, a filosofia de nietzsche. When sincere inquiry is extended to moral convictions and social consensus, nietzsche can prove deadly, Crosby continues, promoting forces that ultimately destroy civilizations.

Es decadente todo aquello que se opone a todos los valores del existir instintivo y biológico del relatorio sobre educacao infantil. Hay que criticar a Nietzsche para eliminar los errores de base; se trata de una crítica total a los nietzsche mundos que son inventados por el hombre occidental y que son síntomas de su decadencia: El mundo racional, el mundo moral y el mundo religioso.

Uno estudo sobre atos 3 los argumentos fundamentales de Nietszche era que los valores tradicionales representados en esencia por el cristianismo habían perdido su poder en las vidas de las personas, lo que llamaba nihilismo pasivo. Lo expresó en su tajante proclamación "Dios ha muerto".

Estaba convencido que los valores tradicionales representaban una "moralidad esclava", una moralidad creada por personas débiles y resentidas que fomentaban comportamientos como la sumisión y el conformismo porque los valores implícitos en tales conductas servían a sus intereses. Nietzsche afirmó el imperativo ético de crear valores nuevos que debían reemplazar los tradicionales, y su discusión sobre esta posibilidad evolucionó hasta configurar su retrato del hombre por venir, el 'superhombre' übermensch.

El error de la moral tradicional se caracterizaría por su antinaturalidad, ya que impone leyes e imperativos que van en contra de los instintos primordiales de la vida. El moralista desprecia todos los valores del yo, siendo el altruismo la norma suprema de conducta.

Dice Nietzsche que la religión nace del miedo y del horror que el hombre tiene de si mismo. Se trata de la incapacidad de asumir uno su propio destino. Y es que la religión nos llevaría a la alienación del hombre, puesto que el cristianismo sólo fomenta valores mezquinos como la obediencia, el sacrificio o la humildad, sentimientos propios del rebaño.

El cristianismo sería para el filósofo una moral vulgar, que se opone a todos los valores específicos de la virtud. Pero sus reproches también apuntan a la Lógica, representante de las pretensiones racionalistas que hasta ahora ha tenido la tradición filosofíca.

Para el lógico, la verdad se opone al error y Nietzsche rechaza esta oposición alegando la existencia de errores irrefutables y verdades contradictorias. La influencia de Schopenhauer cambia de signo y en lugar de la negación de la voluntad de vivir, Nietzsche pone esa voluntad en el centro de su pensamiento. El platonismo consistiría también en una cierta forma de voluntad de poder, consistente en defenderse del cambio y la transformación de este mundo mediante la noción de un Universo imaginario o suprasensible.

Hay que ser, por lo tanto, conscientes del valor relativo que tienen los conceptos. Por lo tanto, el lenguaje tiene un valor metafórico, resultado de un proceso creativo y estético, pero siempre tiene una verdad o validez relativa.

No nos va a permitir captar la verdad de una forma absoluta, sino tan sólo superar el caos que produce en nuestra mente el intento de captar aquello que es de por sí cambiante.

La filosofía occidental, encabezada por Platón y Aristóteles reprimió los planteamientos dionisíacos para ofrecer una visión del mundo apolista. Frente a esto, Nietzsche niega los ideales apolíneos y reclama el triunfo de los ideales dionisíacos mediante la utilización metafórica del lenguaje como letras ee musicas de la voluntad de poder.

La negación de los ideales apolíneos implica la negación del principio de individuación, expresado en nietzsche platonismo por la idea de filosofia y sustituida en el cristianismo por la idea de Dios. Si negamos a Dios, negamos al uno, y si negamos la idea de uno, negamos los ideales apolíneos y afirmamos la multiplicidad dionisíaca, a filosofia de nietzsche, de tal manera que cada cual pueda expresar su propia verdad y sus propios dioses.

Nietzsche depende en cierta medida del positivismo de la época y, a la vez que niega la posibilidad de la Metafísica, representa la pérdida de la fe en Dios y de la inmortalidad del alma. En este horizonte de tiempos futuros por elaborar desde lo ya dado aparece una de las figuras fundamentales del pensamiento nietzscheano, el "superhombre".

La cultura europea ha llegado a su propia ruina, a la decadencia, hay que liberar al hombre de todos los valores falsos, devolviéndole el derecho a la vida y a la existencia, dice Nietzsche.

Para ello, el 1er paso debe consistir en una transmutación de todos los valores de nuestra cultura tradicional. Así, el nihilismo no consiste en una teoría filosófica o en una proposición teórica, sino que es un movimiento propio de nuestra cultura. La fuerza del espíritu de occidente, cansado y agotado por los valores inadecuados y falsos de su "verdadero mundo" se vuelve nihilista. El nihilismo del espíritu occidental es radical y absoluto, y una vez perdida la fe en el "verdadero mundo", la cultura se queda sin sentido, sin guía o meta aparente, entonces se llega a la decadencia o al pesimismo.

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