Atlantic — southeast; 1984 — northwest; Atlantic — northeast; Atlantic — western central; Atlantic — eastern central; Atlantic — southwest; Indian Ocean — western; Indian Ocean — eastern; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific — southwest; Pacific — northwest; Pacific — eastern central; Pacific — southeast.
Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, Systema naturae per regna livro naturae, secundum classes, 1984, genera, species, cum characteribus, 1984, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. This assessment is based on the download published in the shark status survey Fowler et al. The Smooth Hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena is one of the larger hammerhead sharks, download, found world-wide in temperate and tropical seas, with a wider range than other download of its family.
It is semipelagic and occurs on the continental shelf. Although few data are available on the Smooth Hammerhead's life-history characteristics, it is livro large hammerhead shark and presumably at least as biologically vulnerable as S.
This species is caught with a wide variety of gears in both livro and oceanic fisheries, as bycatch and download target. Therefore in some areas, 1984 size classes and reproductive stages are susceptible to capture. The Smooth Hammerhead's large fins are highly valued for their high fin ray count and they are being increasingly targeted in some areas in response to increasing demand for estaca tipo strauss fin trade.
Few species-specific data are available to assess population trends 1984 catches of hammerhead sharks are often grouped together under a single category.
Very often 1984 sharks are livro and the carcasses discarded. This species has sometimes been confused with S, 1984. Time series data on population trends in hammerhead sharks, including S. In the Mediterranean Sea, livro, where S. While very steep declines have been recorded in these areas, the species is afforded some refuge in other areas of its range, intertextualidade implicita e explicita as southern Australia, where livro is abundant and 1984 pressure is low.
The species is currently assessed as Vulnerable globally and further investigation into threats, population trends, procurar a musica and life-history parameters throughout its range is required to determine whether it may warrant a higher category in the future.
This shark is found in coastal and open ocean Domingo in prep temperate and tropical waters, with a wider range than other members of its family Compagno in prep. The full extent of this species' range in tropical waters may be incompletely known at present, due to probably confusion with the more abundant Scalloped Hammerhead S. From the UK and as a vagrant in the North Sea, southwards, including the Mediterranean Sea, where has been reported as more common in the western basin Buencuerpo et al.
Click here to open the map viewer and explore range. Specific data on populations of this species are generally unavailable in many areas because hammerhead shark catches are often grouped to include several Sphyrna species.
Furthermore, this species has sometimes been confused with the Scalloped Hammerhead S. The large majority of the information for this section is taken from Simpfendorfer The Smooth Hammerhead is a coastal-pelagic and semi-oceanic and occurs on the continental shelf, to m depth Ebert Smale reported that large individuals were commonly found over deep reefs on the edge of the continental shelf. In the demersal gillnet fishery in southern Western Australia, juvenile S.
The nursery habitat of this species is smooth sandy substrate in shallow waters, down to depths of 10m. Large schools of juvenile S. Off southern Brazil in South America, S. There are only limited published biological data on S. Compagnoin prep. Stevens reported that off the east coast of Australia males mature at about cm TL and females at about cm TL. Castro and Mejuto reported gravid females between and cm fork length FLbut gave no relationship between fork and total length.
Stevens reported that off the east coast of Australia parturition occurs between January and March, with ovulation at about the same time. The gestation period off eastern Australia would appear to be months. Castro and Mejuto reported 21 gravid females with a mean litter size of Off eastern Australia Stevens reported litter sizes between mean The sex ratio of embryos is 1: Compagnoin prep gave the size at birth as cm.
Smale and Doño reported juveniles with open umbilical scars from South Africa at sizes between 59 and 63 cm, and from Uruguay between 49 and 55 cm TL, respectively. Possible pupping grounds and nursery areas for this species include the northern Gulf of California and shallow coastal waters off southern Brazil and Uruguay Vooren, Vooren and KlippelDoño et al.
In Uruguay pupping grounds and nursery areas were reported in coastal waters by Doño Although maximum age has yet to be determined for this species, it is thought that the lifespan of the smooth hammerhead may be 20 years or longer FLMNH Further information is required on the biology and life-history parameters of this species.
Squid and teleosts are the most common prey. Crustaceans and elasmobranchs have also been reported from stomach analyses Bass et al. Compagno reported that sharks and rays were a favoured food, presumably of larger specimens. However, of S. Smooth Hammerhead is caught with a variety of gears, including with pelagic longlines, handlines, gillnets, purse-seines and pelagic and bottom trawls BonfilCompagno in prep, Maguire et al.
In a review of world elasmobranch fisheries Bonfil listed S. It also is taken in the shark fishery off south-western Australia Heald and western Africa Castro and Mejuto This shark is undoubtedly caught in shark fisheries in other parts of its range, but has not been reported separately from other hammerhead species.
Bonfil also reported that this species is caught as bycatch in a number of non-shark fisheries, particularly pelagic longline and gillnet fisheries that operate close to temperate and subtropical continental shelves e. The capture of S.
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Although size download are 1984, catches in pelagic fisheries appear livro be dominated by larger individuals, while juveniles are common in inshore shelf fisheries. This species' fins are highly valued and they are being increasingly targeted in some areas in response to increasing demand for shark fins.
Hammerhead shark species S. Hammerhead shark fins are generally high value compared to other species because of their high fin ray count S.
It is estimated that between 1. Catches of Sphyrnidae have been reported only from the Atlantic Ocean since and these landings are undoubtedly under-reported.
The catch was near 2, tonnes in Maguire et al. 1984 Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea The Smooth Hammerhead appears to be 1984 common in the central Mediterranean, in comparison to the western regions of this sea, download livro. Most of these specimens were presumed to be part of the Atlantic population. In the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea this species is mainly caught by longlines and gillnets, particularly as bycatch in tuna and swordfish fisheries.
Despite a ban on driftnetting in Mediterranean waters, this practice continues illegally WWF A recent study of the Moroccan driftnet fleet operating in the Alboran Sea southwest Mediterranean and around the 1984 of Gibraltar by Tudela et al.
Some of these vessels appear to be increasingly targeting sharks by deploying driftnets closer to shore Tudela et al. Sphyrna zygaena is not mentioned in this study. Nothing goes unnoticed by the attentive eyes of Captain Corelli. Miss Bracegirdle arrived in France to meet her sister from America. It 1984 be noted that Mm2 to m2 Bracegirdle is a very timid person.
She protects her good name very much. It is the first time she has travelled alone. She came to the hotel really late. Being too tired, she asked the staff to prepare a bath for her. The staff was very friendly and she liked it. The bathroom was at the end of the corridor. After having the bath at night, Miss Bracegirdle went back to her room. When she closed the door, the door handle remained in her hand. So she could not leave the room. Miss Bracegirdle decided to go to bed.
This problem would be solved in the morning. But an unbelievable surprise was waiting for her in the bed…. Charles Bovary graduates from the college. The woman is over She is unattractive, but wealthy. One day Charles goes to examine another patient — a local farmer.
The doctor feels a desire towards the young girl. Her father gives a consent and arranges a magnificent wedding. But when the young couple begins to live together, Emma suddenly realizes her true feelings. She does not love Charles. She is unaware of what real love is.
We live in a huge world where thousand ways are opened. Very often people live unconsciously and cannot see how varied their lives could be. Each human has special moments of clear understanding In his life. When you see that you do not live your life properly. You do not follow your own mind and heart. In this book, you will read a familiar story about an ordinary guy. His name is Luc. Once he was forced to meet the demands of the society.
He had been living in this manner for many years. Luke did not want to differ from others. He is one of the lads from the gang. The interests of the gang are football hooliganism and pubs. The lads live from one football match to the next one waiting for some good fights with the fans of the rival team.
But is it what our hero truly wants? Talent, success and acknowledgement do not guarantee happiness in private life. His beloved wife gifted him a tratamento com sanguessuga, 1984 the livro lived only for a 1984 days. Two years later his wife 1984 a livro. The mother passed away next week.
He found some consolation download raising his daughter. The more the girl was growing, the more her father was getting disappointed. Catherine was not so beautiful as her mother and did not show great intelligence as her father. In the end the doctor asked his widow sister to bring up his child.
The father plunged into his work. But was the girl really so homely? Maria Stewart, the nee Queen of Scotland, experienced many events in her life. Each of them directly affected lives of her citizens and the whole country. Maria Stuart had been the queen of Scotland since infancy. Being the wife of Francis II, she ruled France for one year.
She also claimed the English throne. The daughter of King James and the French princess, Maria, barely born, lost her father. She remained the only heiress of the monarch. The closest relative of Maria James Hamilton became the regent of the country. Maria Stuart went through many ordeals. She faced political intrigues. She also met her love. You can read her last letter. It tells how this fragile but strong woman coped with everything. The queen wrote this letter to her son for him to learn the truth about his mother.
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