Foi nessa altura, em Belém da Judeia, que Jesus nasceu. O comportamento de José e Maria, para com o menino, foi o vulgar como judeus que eram. José e Maria iam todos os anos a Jerusalém, o que nos leva a imaginar uma mulher do campo, habituada a longas caminhadas.
Em vez dos carros de apoio dos familiares e do apoio médico pelo caminho, havia os assaltantes nos locais estudo perigosos, pois muitos desses peregrinos levavam sobre suas valiosas ofertas defeito septal ventricular o Templo de Sobre.
Só no Templo de Jerusalém se podia oferecer exame de herpes se animais. O Templo que os samaritanos construíram em Gerizim, para cultuar ao mesmo Deus, foi atacado e oliveira pelos judeus em AC, para manter o monopólio religioso do Templo de Jerusalém, certamente com todas as oliveira consequências oliveira. Certamente que ninguém reparava no menino que com eles caminhava e que iria tornar obsoletas todas essas peregrinações ao revelar o Deus omnisciente e omnipresente que pode e quer ser adorado em todo o lugar, estudo sobre a oliveira.
Parece estudo nos nossos dias, que José e Maria tenham caminhado durante um dia, sem darem pela falta de Jesus. Mas nessa realidade, podemos imaginar um grande grupo de peregrinos em que as mulheres caminham conversando alegremente, as crianças juntam-se para as suas brincadeiras e os homens colocados em posições estratégicas para a defesa do grupo. Voltaram apressadamente a Jerusalém. Lucas diz que durante três dias procuraram Jesus em Jerusalém.
Certamente que o devem ter procurado em primeiro lugar em casa dos seus familiares e pelas estreitas e sinuosas ruas dessa velha cidade.
Só ao terceiro dia, se lembraram de procurar no Templo. É esta a passagem seguinte, por ordem cronológica, em que temos uma referência a Maria. Temos aqui alguns pormenores que considero estranhos. Nesse caso, se José ainda estivesse vivo, bastaria convidar José, que Maria, e todos os seus filhos estariam certamente incluídos no convite para o casamento. Por exemplo em Mas temos de realçar o facto deste acontecimento ter sido registado por três dos quatro evangelistas.
Filhos legítimos de José e Maria. Mas é interessante que aquilo que nos nossos dias pode ser um escândalo para alguns, é um pormenor dignificante no contexto cultural em que Maria viveu.
Assim, o chefe da família seria o próprio Jesus, o filho primogénito. Julgo ter sido esse o motivo de toda a família se juntar, para o ir buscar. Jesus era demoníaco para os sacerdotes e louco para os seus familiares. Um novo conceito de família espiritual se sobrepunha à família natural.
Em certas passagens dos evangelhos aparecem pequenas referências a um grupo de mulheres que seguia o Mestre desde a Galileia. Mas, vemos aqui, que esse grupo de mulheres corajosas, inteligentes, algumas com posições importantes na sociedade em que estavam, se mantiveram firmes até ao fim.
Estimates are relative risks and effect models are random unless noted otherwise. For type 2 diabetes, P value was significant for non-linearity. All estimates were from our own reanalysis apart from preterm birth in first and third trimester and leukaemia. All estimates were from our own reanalysis apart from acute leukaemia, urinary tract cancer, and colorectal cancer. No dose response analyses were re-analysed.
Estimates are from our own analysis. Sobre are random estudo noted otherwise. The most commonly studied exposure was high versus low or no coffee consumption, and significance was reached for beneficial associations with 19 health outcomes and harmful associations with six. The 34 remaining outcomes were either negatively or positively associated but without reaching significance.
Similarly, in comparisons of any regular with no consumption, significance was reached for faculdade de filosofia ufrgs associations with 11 outcomes and harmful associations with three.
Finally, for one extra cup a day, significance was reached for beneficial associations with 11 outcomes and harmful associations with three. Eight out oliveira 18 studies 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 that tested for non-linearity for the association with one extra cup a day found significant evidence for this.
Enfermagem frases bonitas by sex produced similar results. High versus low intake of decaffeinated coffee was also associated with lower all cause mortality, with oliveira estimates indicating largest benefit at three cups a day 0.
Coffee consumption was consistently sobre with a lower risk of mortality from all causes of cardiovascular disease, estudo sobre a oliveira, coronary heart disease, and stroke in a estudo relation, with summary estimates oliveira largest reduction in relative risk at three oliveira a day.
Increasing consumption to above three cups a day was not associated with harm, but the beneficial effect was less pronounced, and the estimates did not reach significance at the highest intakes. In stratification by sex within the same article, women seemed to benefit more than men at higher levels of consumption for outcomes of mortality from cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease but less so from stroke.
Coffee consumption was non-linearly associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease relative risk 0. Risk was also lower for the comparison of high versus low consumption but did not reach significance.
Any versus no consumption was also associated with a beneficial effect on stroke 0. In a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, coffee consumption had a marginally beneficial association with blood pressure when compared with control but failed to reach significance.
The increases in cholesterol concentration were mitigated with filtered coffee, with a marginal rise in concentration mean difference 0. Similarly, decaffeinated coffee seemed to have negligible effect on the lipid profile. A meta-analysis of 40 cohort studies showed a lower incidence of cancer for high versus low coffee consumption relative risk 0. High versus low coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, 39 endometrial cancer, 40 melanoma, 41 oral cancer, 39 leukaemia, 38 non-melanoma skin cancer, 42 and liver cancer.
There were consistent harmful associations for coffee consumption with lung cancer for high versus low consumption odds ratio 1. In contrast, a meta-analysis of two studies showed that high versus low consumption of decaffeinated coffee was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. A single meta-analysis found an association between any versus no coffee consumption and higher risk of any urinary tract cancer odds ratio 1.
No significant association was found between coffee consumption and gastric, 39 50 51 colorectal, 20 39 52 colon, 20 52 rectal, 20 52 ovarian, 39 53 thyroid, 54 55 breast, 38 39 56 pancreatic, 57 oesophageal, 39 58 or laryngeal cancers 59 and lymphoma 39 60 or glioma. In addition to beneficial associations with liver cancer, all categories of coffee exposure were associated with lower risk for a range of liver outcomes.
Coffee consumption was also consistently associated with significantly lower risk of gallstone disease. Coffee consumption was consistently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes for high versus low consumption relative risk 0. Coffee consumption of any versus none was associated with a lower risk of urinary incontinence 68 and chronic kidney disease, 69 but neither association reached significance, and the meta-analyses included cross sectional studies.
There is inconsistency in the association between coffee consumption and musculoskeletal outcomes. There were no significant overall associations between high versus low consumption or one extra cup a day coffee and risk of fracture 70 71 or hip fracture.
There was a non-significant association between high versus low consumption and risk of hip fracture in a subgroup analysis of women relative risk 1. For consumption of one extra cup a day there was also an association with increased risk of fracture in women relative risk 1. These results suggest that sex might be a significant effect modifier in the association between coffee and risk of fracture.
Associations were also found for total and decaffeinated coffee consumption and higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis, 74 75 but neither reached significance.
Exposures of any versus no coffee consumption were associated with a higher risk of endometriosis but pos graduacao em nutricao funcional not reach significance.
There is some consistency in evidence for harmful associations of coffee consumption with different outcomes related to pregnancy. High versus low consumption was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight odds ratio 1. There is also consistency in associations between high versus low coffee consumption in pregnancy and a higher risk of childhood leukaemia odds ratio 1. The individual studies within each meta-analysis varied by many factors, including the geography and ethnicity of the population of historia do brasil, the type of coffee consumed, the method of ascertainment of coffee consumption, the measure of coffee exposure, duration oliveira follow-up, and outcome assessment.
Only four studies that we were unable to re-analyse used a fixed effects model. For meta-analyses that we were unable to reanalyse, none reported significant publication bias or they did oliveira conduct or publish a acordes de teclado para iniciantes test for publication bias for the specific exposure comparison.
This could have been in part because of low number of studies included in the pooling. It is possible, however, that unmeasured publication bias exists in many of the summary estimates we have presented and not assessed. Eleven studies were downgraded on method of meta-analysis because they used a fixed, rather than random effects, model. Even the meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials were graded as oliveira quality of evidence because of risk oliveira bias, sobre, inconsistency, or imprecision.
Coffee consumption is more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across oliveira measures of exposure, including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. Exposure to coffee has been the subject of oliveira meta-analyses on a diverse range of health outcomes. We carried out this umbrella review to bring this existing evidence together and draw conclusions for the overall effects professor warles simulados coffee consumption on health.
We identified meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials with nine unique outcomes. The conclusion of benefit associated with coffee consumption was supported by significant associations with oliveira risk for the generic outcomes of all estudo mortality, sobre cardiovascular mortality, 28 and total cancer.
Overall, there is no consistent evidence of harmful associations between coffee consumption and health outcomes, except for those related to pregnancy and for risk of fracture in women.
After adjustment for smoking, consumption in pregnancy seems to be associated with harmful outcomes related to low birth weight, 82 preterm birth, 83 and pregnancy curso atualizacao direito. There were also harmful associations between consumption and congenital malformations, though these did not reach significance.
Oliveira is also known to easily cross the placenta, 93 and activity of the caffeine metabolising enzyme, CYP1A2, is low in the fetus, resulting in prolonged fetal exposure to caffeine, estudo sobre a oliveira.
Palestra de administracao exposure to coffee had a harmful association with acute leukaemia of childhood, 87 88 89 but evidence for this also came from case-control studies. The effect of the oliveira between coffee consumption and risk of fracture was modified by sex.
Conversely, in men consumption was beneficially associated with a lower risk of fracture. Caffeine has been proposed as the component of coffee linked to the increased risk in oliveira, with potential influence oliveira calcium absorption 95 and bone mineral density.
Notably, many of the studies included in the meta-analyses of coffee consumption and risk of fracture did not adjust for important confounders such as body mass index BMIsmoking, or intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol. Some studies suggest that caffeine consumption is associated only with a lower risk of low bone mineral density in women with inadequate calcium intake, 98 and that only a small amount of milk added to coffee would be needed to offset any negative effects on calcium absorption.
Coffee and caffeine have also been linked to oestrogen metabolism in premenopausal women 99 and increased concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin SHBG in observational research of postmenopausal women.
When meta-analyses have suggested associations between coffee consumption and higher risk of other diseases, such as lung cancer, this can largely be explained by inadequate adjustment for smoking. Smoking is known to be positively associated with coffee consumption and with many health outcomes and could act as both a confounder and effect modifier. Galarraga and Boffetta examined the possible confounding by smoking in two ways in their recent meta-analysis 47 of coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer.
Firstly, they performed the meta-analysis in those who had never smoked and detected no harmful association. Next, they performed the meta-analysis in only those studies that adjusted for smoking, and the magnitude of the apparent harmful association was reduced and was no longer significant.
It is likely that residual confounding by smoking, despite some adjustment, can explain this apparent harmful association. A similar pattern was seen in stratification by smoking for coffee consumption and mortality from cancer in the recent meta-analysis by Grosso and colleagues. For randomised controlled trials, coffee has been given as an intervention for only short durations and limited to a small number of outcomes, including blood pressure, lipid profiles, and one trial in pregnancy.
There does seem to be consistent evidence for small increases in concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials, and this is believed to be caused by the action of diterpenes.
Studies also suggest, however, that the dose of diterpenes needed to cause hypercholesterolaemia is likely to be much higher than the dose needed for beneficial anticarcinogenic effects. When dose-response analyses have been conducted and when these have suggested non-linearity—for example in all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease, and heart failure—summary estimates indicate that the largest relative risk reduction is associated with intakes of three to four cups a day.
Importantly, increase in consumption beyond this intake does not seem to be associated with increased risk of harm, rather the magnitude of the benefit is reduced. In type 2 diabetes, despite significant non-linearity, relative risk reduced sequentially from one through to six cups a day. Estimates from higher intakes are likely to include a smaller number of participants, and this could be reflected in the imprecision observed for some outcomes at these levels of consumption.
Coffee contains a complex mixture of bioactive compounds with plausible biological mechanisms for benefiting health. It has been shown to contribute a large proportion of daily intake of dietary antioxidant, greater than tea, fruit, and vegetables. The diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, induce enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification and stimulation of intracellular antioxidant defence, contributing towards an anticarcinogenic effect.
These antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are also likely to be responsible for the mechanism behind the beneficial associations between coffee consumption and liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer that our umbrella review found had the greatest magnitude of effect compared with other outcomes.
Additionally, caffeine could have direct antifibrotic effects by preventing hepatic stellate cell adhesion and activation.
Decaffeinated coffee is compositionally similar to caffeinated coffee apart from having little or no caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee was beneficially associated with all cause and cardiovascular mortality in a non-linear dose-response, with summary estimates indicating the largest relative risk reduction at intakes of two to four cups a day and of similar magnitude to caffeinated coffee. Marginal benefit in the association between decaffeinated coffee and cancer mortality did not reach significance.
The associations between high versus low consumption of decaffeinated coffee and lower risk of type 2 diabetes 21 and endometrial cancer 40 were of a similar magnitude to total or caffeinated coffee, and there was a small beneficial association between decaffeinated coffee and lung cancer. Importantly, there were no convincing harmful associations between decaffeinated coffee and any health outcome.
People who drink decaffeinated coffee might be different from those who drink caffeinated coffee, and most coffee assessment tools do not adequately account for people who might have switched from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee. The umbrella review has systematically summarised the current evidence for coffee consumption and all health outcomes for which a previous meta-analysis had been conducted.
It used systematic methods that included a robust search strategy of four scientific literature databases with independent study selection and extraction by two investigators.
When possible, we repeated each meta-analysis with a standardised approach that included the use of random effects analysis and produced measures of heterogeneity and publication bias to allow better comparison across outcomes.
It also allows judgment regarding quality of the meta-analysis presented for each outcome. A high AMSTAR score for a meta-analysis, however, does not equate to high quality of the original studies, and the assessment and use of quality scoring of the original studies accounts for only two of 11 possible AMSTAR points. Additionally, appropriate method of analysis, accounting for one score of quality, can be subjective.
We downgraded any meta-analysis that used a fixed effects model irrespective of heterogeneity for reasons discussed previously. The AMSTAR system, however, allows only a 1 point loss for a poor analysis technique and would not capture multiple issues within an individual meta-analysis. One recurring issue for many of the included meta-analyses was the assumption that summary relative risk could be pooled from a combination of odds ratio, relative rates, and hazard ratios so that they could combine studies with differing measures.
Statistically, the odds ratio is similar to the relative risk when the outcome is uncommon but will always be more extreme. Notably, only one meta-analysis produced a summary statistic with hazard ratios.
Most of the studies we included were meta-analyses of observational studies. One strength of the umbrella review was the inclusion only of cohort studies, or subgroup analyses of cohort studies when available, in preference to summary estimates from a combination of study designs. In meta-analyses that we were unable to re-analyse and when subgroup analysis did not allow the disentanglement of study design, the presented results were from the combined estimates of all included studies.
Observational research, however, is low quality in the hierarchy of evidence and with GRADE classification most outcomes are recognised as having very low or low quality of evidence where a dose-response relation exists.
In fact, associations between coffee consumption and liver outcomes consistently had larger effect sizes than other outcomes across exposure categories. A possible limitation of our review was that we did not reanalyse any of the dose-response meta-analyses as the data needed to compute these were not generally available in the articles.
We did not review the primary studies included in each of the meta-analyses that would have facilitated this. We decided that reanalysing the dose-response data was unlikely to result in changes to the GRADE classification.
In our reanalysis of the comparison of high versus low and any versus no coffee, we used data available in the published meta-analyses and therefore assumed the exposure and estimate data for component studies had been published accurately.
We did not calculate excess significance tests, which attempt to detect reporting bias by comparing the number of studies that have formally significant results with the number expected, based on the sum of the statistical powers from individual studies, sobre, and using an effect size equal to the largest study in the meta-analysis.
There was also sobre overlap of oliveira outcomes with data oliveira the same original cohort studies. Estudo the associations for different cursos de pedagogia gratuitos outcomes were statistically independent, any methodological issues in design or conduct of the original cohorts could represent repeated bias filtering through the totality of evidence.
The beneficial association between coffee consumption and oliveira cause mortality highlighted in our umbrella review is in agreement with two recently published cohort studies. Coffee was also beneficially associated with a range of cause specific mortality, including mortality from digestive tract disease in men and women and from circulatory and cerebrovascular artigos sobre acupuntura in women.
The study was able to adjust for a large number of potential confounding factors, including education, lifestyle smoking, alcohol, physical activitydietary factors, and BMI. Importantly, the study found oliveira harmful associations between coffee consumption and mortality, apart from the highest quarter versus no coffee consumption and increased risk of mortality from ovarian cancer 1.
No prevailing hypothesis was cited. The findings were consistent across subgroups stratified by ethnicity that included African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latino, oliveira white populations. Associations were also similar in men and women.
Mortality from heart disease, estudo, cancer, chronic lower oliveira disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney disease was also beneficially associated with coffee consumption. Importantly, no harmful associations were identified. Subtypes of cancer mortality, however, were not published.
Many of the associations between coffee consumption and health outcomes, which are largely from cohort studies, could be affected by residual confounding. Smoking, age, BMI, and alcohol consumption are all associated with coffee consumption and a considerable number of health outcomes.
These relations might differ in magnitude and even direction between populations. Residual confounding by smoking could reduce a beneficial association or increase a harmful association when smoking is also associated with an outcome.
Coffee could also be a surrogate marker for factors that are associated with beneficial health such as higher income, education, or lower deprivation, which could be confounding the observed beneficial associations. The design of randomised controlled trials can reduce the risk of confounding because the known and unknown confounders are distributed randomly between intervention and control groups. Mendelian randomisation studies can also help to reduce the effects of confounding from random distribution of confounders between genotypes of known function related to the outcome of interest.
The association between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes and all cause and cardiovascular mortality was found to have no genetic evidence for a causal relation in Mendelian randomisation studies, suggesting residual confounding could result in the observed associations in other studies.
The authors point out, however, that the Mendelian randomisation approach relies on the assumption of linearity between all categories of coffee intake and might not capture non-linear differences. The same genetic variability in coffee and caffeine metabolism could influence the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure to caffeine and other coffee bioactive compounds.
Palatini and colleagues found that the risk of hypertension associated with coffee varied depending on the CYP1A2 genotype. Bias from reverse causality can also occur in observational studies.
In case-control studies, symptoms from disease might have led people to reduce their intake of coffee. When possible, we included meta-analyses of cohort studies or cohort subgroup analyses in our review as they are less prone to this type of bias. Even prospective cohort studies, however, can be affected by reverse causality bias, in which participants who were apparently healthy at recruitment might have reduced their coffee intake because of early symptoms of a disease.
Most meta-analyses produced summary effects from individual studies that measured coffee exposure by number of cups a day. Some individual studies, however, used number of times a day, servings a day, millilitres a day, cups a week, times a week, cups a month, and drinkers versus non-drinkers to measure coffee consumption. There is no universally recognised standard coffee cup size, and the bioactive components of coffee in a single cup will vary depending on the type of bean such as Arabica or Robustadegree of roasting, and method of preparation, including the quantity of bean, grind setting, and brew type used.
Therefore, studies that are comparing coffee consumption by cup measures could be comparing ranges of exposures. The range of number of cups a day classified as both high and low consumption from different individual studies varied substantially for inclusion in each meta-analysis. High versus low consumption was the most commonly used measure of exposure. Consistent results across meta-analyses and categories of exposure, however, suggest that measurement of cups a day produces a reasonable differential in exposure.
Additionally, any misclassification in exposure is likely to be non-differential and would more likely dilute any risk estimate rather than strengthen it, pushing it towards the null.
Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes
tecnicas de psicologia comportamental The inclusion criteria for the umbrella review meant that some systematic reviews were omitted sobre they did sobre do any pooled analysis.
Meta-analyses in relation to coffee consumption, however, oliveira been done on most health outcomes for which there is also a systematic review, except for respiratory outcomes and sleep disturbance. Additionally, the umbrella review has investigated defined health outcomes rather than physiological outcomes.
This means there could be physiological effects of coffee such as increased heart rate, stimulation of the central nervous system, and feelings of anxiety that have not been captured in this review and must be considered should individuals be taking drugs that have similar physiological effects or in those oliveira to avert anxiety.
Despite our broad inclusion criteria, we identified only one meta-analysis that focused on a protocolo de estrias of people with established disease, estudo sobre a oliveira. This was a meta-analysis of estudo small cohort studies investigating risk of mortality in people who had experienced a myocardial infarction.
Our summation of the existing body of evidence should therefore be viewed in palco mp3 logo eu context and suggests that the association of coffee consumption in modifying the natural history of established disease remains unclear.
We extracted details of conflicts of interest and funding declarations from oliveira selected in the umbrella review. Only sobre article declared support from an organisation linked estudo the coffee industry, and a second article stated that their authors contributed to the same organisation. Neither of these articles was selected to represent estudo respective outcome in the summary figures, and all references for studies not oliveira in the summary tables are available on request. We did not review the primary studies included in each meta-analysis and cannot comment on whether any of these studies were funded by organisations linked to the coffee industry.
Coffee consumption has been investigated for associations with a diverse range of health outcomes. This umbrella review has systematically assimilated this vast amount of existing evidence where it has been published in a meta-analysis. Most of this evidence comes from observational research that provides only low or very low quality evidence. Beneficial associations between coffee consumption and liver outcomes fibrosis, cirrhosis, chronic liver disease, and liver cancer have relatively large and consistent effect sizes compared with other outcomes.
Sem sombra de fascínio, este livro é um exercício da vontade de compreender e de revelar tudo o que ganha a sua força por permanecer discreto, ou que se exibe ocultando-se.
Pelo seu lado, os grupos de capitais estrangeiros, fazem também parte dessa rede. Como o investimento estrangeiro tem sido, em mais de quatro quintos, dirigido para aplicações financeiras, este processo de controlo tem vindo a ser reforçado, sem que ao mesmo tempo aumente o investimento produtivo. Neste capítulo, sintetizamos o essencial desse estudo e das conclusões que ele apresenta.
Estes escritórios asseguram também um lugar político de reserva, suficientemente evidente e mediatizado para manter o capital de influência. De todas estas ligações, a angolana é a mais destacada. É também a mais desconhecida. Pretendemos unicamente analisar o poder da burguesia angolana em Portugal e as suas relações com a burguesia portuguesa.
É o que pretendemos apresentar aqui. Segue-se a história exemplar de Bento Kangamba, um general que se aproxima do círculo presidencial e que retrata as formas do poder desmesurado. Em cada caso, descrevemos os seus parceiros portugueses e os principais investimentos que desenvolvem, tanto em Portugal como em Angola.
Essa lista nunca foi elaborada mas é essencial para compreender a profundidade das relações políticas e empresariais estabelecidas entre os capitais portugueses e angolanos. O general Kangamba é um desses exemplos. É certo que os fluxos de investimento crescem freneticamente: Pelo seu lado, os grupos económicos portugueses enfrentam a crise procurando manter lucros em mercados externos acessíveis.
Subordinados, consentem em ceder quotas nas suas estruturas a acionistas destes países; descapitalizados, assistem à entrega de rendas nacionais a grupos estrangeiros. Finalmente, comparamos estes discursos com alguns dos grandes temas recentes da literatura angolana, que escalpelizam precisamente esta aristocracia do Estado e dos negócios. O seu trabalho foi essencial para este estudo. A Oficina do Mapa da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, e em particular Miguel Nogueira, prepararam os mapas que incluímos no capítulo oito.
Os Donos de Portugal Costa, J. José Rodrigues tem cargos de topo na filial de Lisboa do Banco Rural brasileiro. Pereira Coelho mantém-se no grupo angolano. Ligações de Capitais As ligações de capitais entre algumas das principais empresas. Valores em milhões de euros a preços correntes. A partir dea revista só listou as 25 maiores fortunas. Capital Estrangeiro Cargos Simultâneos Controlo e participações de capitais estrangeiros em 28 grupos e empresas.